APCI On-Line Tutorials-

Little Encyclopedia of Mass Spectrometry
www.rzuser.uni-heidelberg.de/%7Ebl5/encyclopedia.html

Ionization/Interface
http://www.jeolusa.com/ms/docs/ionize.html


APCI Key References-

A Historial Perspective of the Coupling of LC & MS
Abian, J., "The coupling of gas and liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry," J. Mass Spectrom. 34, pages 157-168 (1999).

Determination of Sulfa Drugs in Biological Fluids by Liquid Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry/Mass Spectrometry.
Henion, J.D., Thomson, B.A., Dawson, P.H., Anal. Chem. 54, pages 451-456 (1982).

Atmospheric Pressure Ionization Mass Spectrometry.
Carroll, D.I., Dzidic, I., Horning, E.C., Stillwell, R.N., Appl. Spectrosc. Rev. 17, pages 337-406 (1981).

Atmospheric Pressure Ionization Mass Spectrometry: Studies of Negative Ion Formation for Detection and Quantification Purposes.
Horning, E.C., Carroll, D.I., Dzidic, I., Lin, S.N., Stillwell, R.N., Thenot, J.P., J. Chromatogr. 142, pages 481-495 (1977).

Atmospheric Pressure Ionization Mass Spectrometry: Corona Discharge Ion Source for Use in Liquid Chromatograph-Mass Spectrometer-Computer Analytical System.
Carroll, D.I., Dzidic, I., Stillwell, R.N., Haegele, K.D., Horning, E.C., Anal. Chem. 47, pages 2369-2373 (1975).

Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometer-Computer Analytical Systems: A Continuous Flow System Based on Atmospheric Pressure Ionization Mass Spectrometry.
Horning, E.C., Carroll, D.I., Dzidic, I., Haegele, K.D., Horning, M.G., Stillwell, R.N., J. Chromatogr. 99, pages 13-21 (1974).

Atmospheric Pressure Ionization (API) Mass Spectrometry. Solvent Mediated Ionization of Samples Introduced in Solution and in a Liquid Chromatograph Effluent System.
Horning, E.C., Carroll, D.I., Dzidic, I., Haegele, K.D., Horning, M.G., Stillwell, R.N., J. Chromatogr. Sci. 12, pages 725-729 (1974).


APCI Technology Review(s)-

Rising cost for helium based discharged: U.S May become an importer of heliumwithin the next 10 to 15 years.
DJH, "Helium sell-off not working," C&EN 88, page 24 (February 1, 2010).

Ion Funnel Interface.
Shaffer, S.A., Prior, D.C., Anderson, G.A., Udseth, H.R., Smith, R.D., "An ion funnel interface for improved ion focusing and sensitivity using electrospray ionization mass spectrometry," Anal. Chem. 70, pages 4111-4119 (1998).

Appendix C and Chapter 2 of "A Global View of LC/MS"
Willoughby, R.C. Sheehan, E.W., Mitrovich, S. Global View Publishing: Pittsburgh; 500 pages (1997).

Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry, General Principles and Instrumentation.
Niessen, W.M.A., Tinke, A.P., J. Chromatogr. A 703, pages 37-57 (1995).

Atmospheric Pressure Ionization Mass Spectrometry II: Applications in Pharmacy, Biochemistry and General Chemistry.
Bruins, A.P., Trends Anal. Chem. 13, pages 81-90 (1994).

Chapter 4, LC-MS Interfacing: A General Overview (In: Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry: Principles and Applications).
Niessen, W.M.A., van der Greef, J., pages 81-115, Marcel Dekker: New York; 479 pages (1992).

Chapter 14, Chemical Ionization in LC-MS (In: Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry: Principles and Applications).
Niessen, W.M.A., van der Greef, J., pages 311-350, Marcel Dekker: New York; 479 pages (1992).

Mass Spectrometry with Ion Sources Operating at Atmospheric Pressure.
Bruins, A.P., Mass Spectrom. Rev. 10, pages 53-77 (1991).

Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry and Related Techniques via Atmospheric Pressure Ionization.
Wachs, T., Conboy, J.C., Garicia, F., Henion, J.D., J. Chromatogr. Sci. 29, pages 357-366 (1991).